The Value of Rural Women’s Labour in Production and Wood Fuel Use

Dev Nathan, Indira Shakya, R Rengalakshmi, Manjula M, Shantanu GaIkwad, Govind Kelkar

How do gender-related factors influence cooking fuel use? Why does an LPG capital subsidy lead to fuel stacking rather than fuel switching? The insights gained from authors’ research are supplemented by case studies, specifically aimed at exploring the connections between women’s labour time and fuel use. Using these observations and case studies, an analytical framework is developed, which yields propositions that can be tested empirically, such as the high value of women’s labour in production leading to the adoption of labour-saving cooking fuel and vice versa. This framework is used to...

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Energy Use and Women’s Work in Agriculture

Dev Nathan, Manjula M, R Rengalakshmi, Govind Kelkar

Changes in women’s use of energy in agriculture, in the spheres of crop production and social reproduction, can bring about a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Two technological changes—the shift from household cooking with carbon-emitting solid biomass fuels to liquified petroleum gas as a clean cooking fuel; and the shift from methane-emitting flooded rice cultivation to the System of Rice Intensification with electricity-based alternate wetting and drying—have been considered in this regard. The changes in women’s roles and energy use accompanying these technological interventions...

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The Political Economy of Energy Policy in South Africa: From a Gender Agenda to a Class Project

Horman Chitonge

The paper begins with a profile of the energy sector, highlighting both the supply as well as demand sides, and focusing on the post-apartheid period. This is followed by a brief analysis of the development of the energy policy, including the main actors in its formulation. The next section looks at the four phases in the development of the energy policy from 1994 to the present. Following this is a brief discussion of how the South African energy policy is influenced by international factors and players, including international agreements on climate change and donors. A section on gender...

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Political Economy of Energy Policy in India: Electricity and LPG

Haribandhu Panda

Clean energy is key to good quality life, effective production, productivity enhancement and innovation. India has abundant coal and renewable energy, matured technology and institutions for meeting the clean energy needs of lighting, cooking and other utilitarian and productive requirements. Over the years, the country’s energy consumption has become highly skewed towards fossil fuels. In addition to high-grade coal for steel and power production, India’s oil and natural gas needs are mostly met through import. Geographically, there is wide disparity in energy consumption, with some...

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For Clean Cooking Energy in Rural India: Women’s Empowerment and LPG as Prestige Good

 Over a period of 12 years (1999–2000 to 2011–12) the reduction in the proportion of rural households primarily relying on firewood has  been from 86.1 percent to 77.2 percent in 2011–12 in a period of high economic growth. This raises the question: Besides economic growth, what else is needed at the policy level in order to bring a quick transition from solid biomass to clean fuels, LPG or electricity?The use of firewood as cooking fuel results in two problems. One is that there is a release of carbon (black carbon) contributing to the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere...

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The Gender Factor in Clean Cooking Energy in Rural India Policy Brief

Govind Kelkar,Dev Nathan, Shantanu Gaikwad,Manjula M,R. Rengalakshmi

 State of Affairs: Over a period of 12 years (1999-2000 to 2011-12) the reduction in the proportion of rural households primarily relying on firewood has been from 86.1 percent to 77.2 percent in 2011-12 in a period of high economic growth. This raises the question: Besides economic growth, what else is needed at the policy level in order to bring a quick transition from solid biomass to clean fuels, LPG or electricity?

The use of firewood as cooking fuel results in two problems. One is that there is a release of carbon (black carbon) contributing to the build-up of...

Read More

Political Economy of Energy Policy in India: Electricity and LPG

Haribandhu Panda

Clean energy is key to good quality of life, effective production, productivity enhancement and innovation. India has abundant amount of coal and renewable energy, matured technology and institutions for meeting the clean energy needs of lighting, cooking and other utilitarian and productive requirements. Over the years, country’s energy consumption is highly skewed towards fossil fuels. In addition to high grade coal for steel and power production, India’s oil and natural gas need is mostly met through import. Geographically, there has been wide disparity in energy consumption, with...

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The Gender Factor in Political Economy of Energy Sector Dynamics

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation,Centre for Rural Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal

This research proposal is based on the premise that it is necessary to include gender concerns in the political economy of energy access. In addition to a structural analysis of power in conventional concerns of political economy, we underscore the need for a gender analysis of political and economic processes to understand the strategic energy needs of rural women and men, who have experienced marginalization and exclusion in the development of energy infrastructure. The central research question is: how can rural women be empowered to gain access to modern energy services in both...

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